When fossil carbon sources are burned, CO2 that has been trapped under the ground for millions of years is released. This is not the case with biomass. Plants such as trees grow within a period of a few years and absorb CO2 through photosynthesis. If the wood is used as biomass at a later stage and burned, for example, the amount of CO2 released is only the same as the quantity the plants absorbed from the atmosphere while growing. So the CO2 is kept in circulation. To achieve a good climate balance, however, biomass may only be cultivated and used in a sustainable manner; we also have to take into account transport routes, the protection of biodiversity and potential competition as regards land use. This includes land use for growing food, as well as forestry for sequestering CO2 over the long term and creating areas to serve as carbon sinks. Sustainably generated biomass will not be sufficient to cover the entire carbon demand of the industrial sector. Biomass must therefore be deployed in a purposeful and economical way. It is, however, a key part of the climate-neutral processes of the future for industry. The possibilities for use are manifold: biomass can be used as raw material in the chemical industry, for instance, or as fuel to produce process heat in the cement industry.